About internet service – its beginning and technical details
Chandigarh internet connectivity solutions :
Internet access via a dedicated line :
Today internet is our need. It is one of biggest developments by human. We tried to explore important information to internet broadband consumers of chandigarh and Punjab. The history of the Internet began in 1969 when the ‘University of California’ US created the very first network node, called ARPANet. Gradually, the network has grown, developed, improved, and by the middle of the 80s it began to connect separate LANs (later called the Internet). For data exchange has developed a set of protocols TCP / the IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol), who replaced original protocol used ARPANet the NCP (Network Communication Protocol). Protocols TCP / IP family allowed to work in local area networks (LAN – Local Area Network), and global (WAN – Wide Area Network).
In 1986, on the basis of already existing network ARPANet (with data rates up to 56 kbit / s ) was launched to create a new high-speed network of 13 nodes, each of which was presented to the local network of high-performance computers IBM, which was the main purpose of packet routing. With that in case of failure of any node, the network continued to function, due to the fact that the functions of the failed, assumes the remaining nodes. A few years later connected to the network of thousands of individual networks of computers. And then millions. The most simple and common access to the Internet for a long time remained telephone access analog lines, characterized by low speed and reliability of connection.
This method of access today is almost entirely supplanted by technology connection via leased lines, allowing:
- receive the high speed and reliable data transmission.
thanks to various application solutions based on the IP protocol to achieve
- reducing the costs of other forms of communication (IP-telephony, conferences, etc.).
- have a permanent connection to the Internet day and night, without a telephone line.
- provide accommodation within the office servers WWW, FTP, PROXY, etc.
- improved workflow with remote divisions of the company.
- build a unified system of access control and information security.
Internet – a worldwide global network of huge number of individual computers and computer networks. Such a network can not exist without common rules of construction and operation of its individual elements. In accordance with the specification of TCP / IP, each computer on the network is assigned a unique 32-bit address (IP-address). For convenience, these addresses are written as four decimal numbers from 0 to 255 separated by periods – 192.168.12.2. They are engaged in the distribution of special Organizing Committee of the Internet (IANA). Part of address space allocated for use in local area networks (private network address), for example, the address range 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.255.255 (Also IP-address from the range 0.0.0.0 / 8, 22.214.171.124/8, 169.254.0.0/16, 192.0.2.0/24, 126.96.36.199/24, 198.18.0.0/15, 188.8.131.52/4 reserved for use in private networks, see. RFC 3330. ) That is, in the Internet do not have computers such addresses (and never will), and used this range only in local area networks. As an ordinary person is difficult to remember not having a semantic meaning sets of numbers, use a special system of names in the Internet – Domain Name System (DNS), through which it is possible to associate with each IP-address so-called domain name, for example – yandex.ru. Registration of domain names involved in special organizations and services. When your computer (or group of computers from a single point of connection) is connected to the Internet, it becomes the same part of the global network, as well as others, have entered into it. He gets the IP-address and access to the service DNS, using hardware and software resources of the organization, which specializes in the provision of Internet access services – Internet Service Provider or aprovider. In a small local area networks is most commonly used address range 192.168.0.0 – 192.168.0.255. (network Class C). The first address is used as the address of the entire network (network number), and the last – as an address for a broadcast that sends the packet is received by all computers. The exchange between computers on the network blocks that are called packages, and each package includes IP- address of the host computer and the IP- address of the transmitter. And if, for example, as the address of the host computer will be used 192.168.0.0 – this package does not get one, and if 192.168.0.255 – that this package will get everything. In the setting of TCP / IP protocol in addition to the address given by the computer network mask. It is a way of specifying the means of TCP / IP protocol the initial and final IP-addresses of network. Mask of the structure resembles an address in which the high-order bits are set to 1, and the low – to 0 (255 in hex = FF). Operation “and” IP-address and mask defines the network address: 192.168.0.1 255.255.255.0 & = 192.168.0.0 Operation “or” IP-address and the inverted mask specifies the broadcast address: 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.255 + = 192.168.0.255 Broadcast is used in cases where it is necessary to transmit the data packet to all computers on the network, for example, to control the distribution of IP addresses and linking them to a specific network card. If you want to establish a connection with a computer located outside of our network, ie, having an IP-address is not included in the range defined by network address and mask (in the framework of the topic let it be a computer having, for example, IP-address 184.108.40.206) used routing – a way of forwarding packets between computers belonging to different networks. For implementation of network routing should attend a special device – a router (router). Simplistically router can be represented in the form of a dedicated computer with two (at least) network interfaces, one of which is connected to our network, and the other – to the network in which the computer is located, for example with the address 220.127.116.11. If you receive each of the next data packet the router examines the destination address and determines through which of the network interfaces to perform its shipment. If the destination node is reachable locally performed direct transfer destination (direct delivery – Direct Delivery), but if not – then the router determines which he knows neighboring node router is closer to the recipient, and passes the packet through the appropriate network interface (indirect delivery Indirect Delivery). Subsequent router operates on exactly the same algorithm. And, sooner or later, according to the principle “from node to node” (Hop-By-Hop) data will be delivered to the addressee the last router in the chain. In order to successfully perform a search of the route network routers are formed, stored and updated special routing table. Thus, the procedure for connecting to the Internet reduces to obtaining achievable IP-node address and the address of the nearest router. In other words, the whole problem of connecting any computer to any Internet site is to provide a data link (preferably low-cost and high speed) to the router to access the Internet site of the selected provider. How is it possible to organize such a channel? To date, a few options:
- With the use of fiber-optic communication lines. It is characterized by high bandwidth and noise immunity. High cost.
- Using satellite channels. Option is also quite expensive and can be used to connect geographically remote users when laying physical line is impossible or economically unprofitable.
- Using the access radio link. Wireless Internet access is fairly rapidly, and it is possible that soon will become one of the most common.
- In particular, the US part of the territory with poorly developed infrastructure is planned to cover a new wireless network 4G (WiMax)
- With the use of physical (selected) link. Lets get acceptable data transfer rate at the lowest cost, but requires urban telecommunications and limited distance from the access point provider.
When you connect to the Internet via a dedicated line, as the transmission medium is most often used ordinary telephone wire pair at what technologies exist to allow parallel use of the same pair for Internet access, as well as for a regular phone. There are other options, less common when a transmission medium used cable television network or AC power. To realize the connection with the phone you need to rent a pair of private line from one of the operators of local telephone services. This line is available to the customer in the lease and connects the user equipment (your) equipment provider, bypassing the switching equipment PBX. All work on the organization of private line carried out by experts from the technical service provider and the local telephone exchange. As a channel-forming equipment uses special modems to establish a digital channel. Type the selected channel determines the type of modem. Most modern modems have access to Ethernet and can be connected directly to your local network. The general scheme of connection via a dedicated line.
- Access channels Frame Relay – used to connect a pair of ordinary copper telephone.Simultaneous use of a pair of telephony and organization of channel is possible.
- Access channels ISDN – “Digital Network Integrated Services” (Integrated Services Digital Network). Services ISDN – it’s not just access, but also a set of other services (digital phone, voice mail, etc.), which can be obtained by the client when connecting to the network. The possible range of services and their costs you can learn from a particular provider and to stipulate in the contract .. ISDN – Waste standardized technology for a long time. The connection is made over ordinary copper telephone lines and provides the signal to digital form throughout the compound.
- Access via digital channels technology xDSL – possibility of high data rates at relatively low cost equipment using standard telephone network. Communication media – conventional telephone cables, with transmission speed depends on the quality and length of the line connecting the user and the provider.
The acronym xDSL symbol “x” is used to refer to the first character in the name of a specific technology, and DSL stands for digital subscriber line DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). XDSL technology can transmit data at speeds far exceeding the speed of those that are available, even the best analog modems. Moreover, many xDSL technology allows combining high-speed data and voice over the same copper pair normal. Existing types of xDSL technology, differ mainly in the form of modulation used and the data rate that can reach 52 Mbps for technology VDSL (on the right lines and the distance to 1.5 km). Today, the most popular technology is ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line). ADSL is a technology that allows to turn an ordinary pair of telephone wires in the path of high-speed data transmission. ADSL line connects the subscriber modem ADSL, the equipment provider, is installed on the local telephone exchange (DSL or DSLAM hubs provider). Thus organized three information channels – “downstream” data stream (downstream) with a data rate of 1.5 Mbits / sec. up to 8 Mbit / s, “upward” data stream (upstream) with the exchange rate from 0.64Mbit / sec. 1.5 Mbit / sec. and ordinary telephone channel (POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service). With that, the telephone communication channel is allocated using a filter that ensures the operation of your phone even when the failed connection ADSL. . As a result, you get anytime access to the Internet while maintaining normal operation of a regular phone. For more information on xDSL technology you can get online xDSL technology. As an example of wiring diagrams using the above techniques, I took the scheme from the site of the Moscow provider “Comstar” How seen from the scheme, a member of a couple of your existing telephone phone number is switched to the input of a special device – a splitter. The splitter does not require a power source and has 2 outputs – first, to connect the phone (instead of which included a splitter) and the second to connect the ADSL – modem. The connection is made through conventional telephone connectors. ADSL- modem (in this embodiment, the connection used CISCO 827-4V) actually carries out not only the functions of a modem, and the router with Network Address Translation (NAT), and is something like a specialized computer to RISC-based with its operating system (Cisco IOS). This device provides not only digital channel access, it also provides hardware compression and transmission of his voice over IP (technology VoIP).
Cisco 827 on the rear wall has multiple connectors. One of them (ADSL port) connects the device to a second output of the splitter, either directly or by using the telephone wiring via outlet
Another connector is used to connect to the network (Ethernet port) or through the Hub / Switch, or directly to the network card. Connector “Console port” is the technology and is used to connect the console hardware in the software configuration. A separate group of connectors (Telephone ports) is used to connect up to 4 conventional telephones, which are provided by ADSL-connection.
Understanding and resolving problems of access to the Internet.
Access via digital channels xDSL technology – the possibility of obtaining the high data rates at relatively low cost equipment using standard telephone network. Conventional telephone cables are high-speed digital channels, and the data transfer speed depends on the quality and length of the line connecting the user and the provider. The acronym xDSL symbol “x” is used to refer to the first character in the name of a specific technology, and DSL stands for digital subscriber line (Digital Subscriber Line). Existing types of xDSL technology, they differ mainly in the form of modulation used and the data rate that can reach 52 Mbps for technology VDSL (on the right lines and the distance to 1.5 km). Today the most common technology is ADSL (Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line). To transmit data using regular telephone pair, but organized three information channels – “downstream” flow data (downstream) with a data rate of up to 8 Mbit / s, “bottom” stream data (upstream) with the exchange rate to 1.5 Mbits / sec. and ordinary telephone channel (POTS – Plain Old Telephone Service). With that, the telephone communication channel is allocated using a filter that ensures the operation of your phone even when the failed connection ADSL. As a result, you get anytime access to the Internet while maintaining normal operation of a regular phone. “Asymmetry” ADSL technology is simply reflected in the low cost of the equipment used and the significant difference in the rate of data transfer “to you” and “up to you”. Further development of ADSL technology has led to its modification differs Enhanced Data Rate (ADSL2, ADSL2 +) connection to the ISP is done via ADSL-modem. By way of connecting to a computer modem can be divided into USB and ETHERNET – modems. The same modem can be as USB, or Ethernet port (port number). Modem USB, tend to be cheaper, but suggest the possibility of using only in the bridge (bridge). In this mode, the modem operates similarly to dial-up modems. Instead of the standard dial-up connection is used to connect PPPoE (Point-to-Point over Ethernet). USB – modem is now in its pure form is almost not available. More common connection to a computer via Ethernet, which implies the presence of a network card. This connection can be used as a modem in bridge mode and router mode. Modern ADSL – modem, practically, is a specialized computer, with its software not only performs routing (routing) and NAT (Network Address Translation, or NAT), and support for device management via HTTP and (or) Telnet protocols, services domain name resolution (DNS), Dynamic Host Configuration nodes (DHCP), Firewall (firewall), TFTP-server, etc. Naturally, all these internal functions are available if the modem is in router mode. Below is an example of a simple wiring diagram home network to the Internet using a modem Zyxel P660RU2 in router mode. Modem Zyxel P660RU has only 1 port Ethernet, therefore, to connect several computers using a switch (switch). If you have multiple ports, the number of which is sufficient to connect your computers, the switch is not needed. The modem has the IP – address 192.168.1.1 on the interface is equal to LAN. Client computers have addresses 192.168.1.2, 192.168.1.3, and 192.168.1.33. Network mask – 255.255.255.0. The modem is used in router mode with NAT. Not using DHCP, TCP / IP settings of client computers are performed manually.
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